Multimode Interference of Bloch Surface Electromagnetic Waves

Kirill R. Safronov, Dmitry N. Gulkin, Ilya M. Antropov, Ksenia A. Abrashitova, Vladimir O. Bessonov, and Andrey A. Fedyanin

ACS Nano , 14, 8, 10428−10437 (2020)

Integrated photonics aims at on-chip controlling light in the micro- and nanoscale ranges utilizing the waveguide circuits, which include such basic elements as splitters, multiplexers, and phase shifters. Several photonic platforms, including the well-developed silicon-on-insulator and surfaceplasmon polaritons ones, operate well mostly in the IR region. However, operating in the visible region is challenging because of the drawbacks originating from absorption or sophisticated fabrication technology. Recently, a new promising all-dielectric platform based on Bloch surface electromagnetic waves (BSWs) in multilayer structures and functioning in the visible range has emerged finding a lot of applications primarily in sensing. Here, we show the effect of multimode interference (MMI) of BSWs and propose a method for implementing the advanced integrated photonic devices on the BSW platform. We determine the main parameters of MMI effect and demonstrate the operation of Mach−Zehnder interferometers with a predefined phase shift proving the principle of MMI BSW-based photonics in the visible spectrum. Our research will be useful for further developing a versatile toolbox of the BSW platform devices which can be essential in integrated photonics, lab-on-chip, and sensing applications.